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Special collections

Library special collections departments shade the boundary between libraries and museums by collecting, preserving and managing access to manuscripts and other unique unpublished artifacts, as well as published ephemera and rare books. To begin to understand how materials are evaluated for inclusion in special collections, imagine a continuum from a unique handwritten manuscript (say, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address) to familiar mass-produced publications with tens of thousands of examples reproduced exactly (e.g. Harry Potter or a Steven King paperback, or even a reproduction of Lincoln's famous speech of November 19, 1863). Then, consider market, collector or research demand and the subjective importance of the item, along with its physical condition. We will introduce rare books relating to Africa separately and concentrate on archives and manuscripts in this session.

Some examples of special collections materials include:

Archives and manuscripts

Repositories found in archives and manuscript libraries were generally built around an agency, business or organization ("archives") or around a person or family ("papers" or "collections"). They may include correspondence, meeting minutes, speeches, writings, reports, research data, photos, financial records, legal documents, news clippings, audiovisual recordings, etc. In African Studies, researchers most frequently consult the archival collections of colonial governments and missionary societies (some of which are available in large, expensive but commercially available microfilm sets), but may also consider the private papers of historically important political actors or intellectual figures, writers or diarists. For a good introduction to archival theory, see Introduction to Archival Organization and Description: Access to Cultural Heritage (click on the Table of Contents link at the page bottom to access site contents).

Other archives may be useful sources too, including those of political parties, development agencies and commercial businesses. During research on the slave trade, a researcher might consult a certain ship's log, correspondence between its captain and a chartered company, and finally may need to review government documents, for example when a parliamentary inquiry involved the trader in question. Another example might be research on South African political protest under the Apartheid regime, where ANC party documents might figure both as non-governmental sources in early phases and as official government documents later on (as when the Truth and Reconciliation Commission elicited the release of information on earlier activities of individuals and government officials).

Although all collections share common characteristics, each is unique because it was created and arranged by a unique person or organization. One basic principle of archival theory is that we never mix two collections if they have a different provenance (e.g., we would never interfile the Soames Family Papers with the Whirljack Corporate Archives, even if E. Soames had served as a president of the corporation--one collection was created by the family, while the other consists of the records of a business). Although there is some relationship between these two collections they are maintained as two separate collections because of their provenance.

Special collections, archives and manuscripts libraries exist to provide public or private access to materials with historical or intellectual importance. Librarians, archivists and curators do so by establishing physical and intellectual control over these collections. We establish physical control by acquiring the collections (by purchase or by donation), by arranging the materials and by preserving them (transferring to archival folders/boxes, removing harmful items such as rubber bands and paper clips and storing them in proper facilities with sufficient humidity and temperature control). Intellectual control is established by describing materials using catalog records, finding aids, inventories, registers or other descriptive tools.

Collection descriptions usually include a contents (or box) list and contextual information such as a biography or agency history and a scope and content summary. Arrangement and description are closely related: it's hard to do one without the other. When arranging a collection, we try to maintain the original order that was established by the creator (this is a second basic tenet of archival practice). If that order does not exist or is not very logical, archivists then establish an order that will best facilitate access. For example, we might group all of the correspondence together and then arrange it chronologically or we might put all of the writing manuscripts together in another group and arrange it alphabetically. The materials are transferred to archival folders and we record the folder description in the descriptive inventory. At the end of the physical arrangement process, we have a complete inventory of all boxes/folders in the collection. We then create the contextual information (biographies, scope/content notes, etc.) that researchers use to understand the materials (why they are being preserved, what is unique about them, how they are organized, etc.).

Access and preservation

Finally, as stewards or curators of these materials, librarians and archivists must strike a balance between access and preservation. It makes little sense to preserve a collection if you are not going to allow researchers to use it. It likewise makes little sense to provide access to a collection without securing and preserving the materials. The balance between access and preservation can be difficult to maintain, with various institutions (and individual curators) approaching relevant and at times conflicting issues differently based on their own unique mandates and the nature of their particular collections. Items maintained in special collections do not circulate (they can't be checked out) because of legitimate concerns over security and condition. In special circumstances, however, they may be loaned from one library to another in close consultation with a curator. While providing access is our reason for being, there is no public access once a unique item is destroyed, stolen, etc. We try to ensure that the materials will exist for future generations while also allowing the current generation to use them.

Access to special collections (and to museum collections) is becoming easier with specialized reference resources, electronic databases and catalogs, finding aids on the web, digitization projects, etc. In some cases, however, printed catalogs may still be the best way to learn about a given collection. Research time invested ahead of travel may provide great returns when you find your time with a collection limited due to unforeseen factors such as travel delays, foreign holidays and work schedules, etc.

Archives & manuscript resources via the web

Africa Focus is an online, searchable database of image and sound files for Africa: "Africa Focus brings together, in digital form, two categories of primary and secondary resources: research and teaching materials collected by University of Wisconsin faculty and staff; and unique or valuable items related to these fields held by the University of Wisconsin Libraries. This collection contains more than 3000 slides, 500 photographs, 50 hours of sounds from forty-five different countires, as well as a large number of difficult to find texts that librarians, scholars, and other subject specialists have deemed important to these fields of study."

ArchiveGrid is a search engine devoted to identifying archival resources and finding aids. "ArchiveGrid is a service of RLG, a not-for-profit membership organization of over 150 universities, national libraries, archives, historical societies, and other institutions with remarkable collections for research and learning."

The Center for Research Libraries (CRL) and Cooperative Africana Microform Project (CAMP) hold extensive collections of African related archives that form a large pool of historical, political, linguistic, economic and geographical data along with many primary source materials that are not available elsewhere (see Guides to Collections). Many of these microfilm sets contain archival material or large collections of other material that do not lend themselves to traditional analytic cataloging. UF is a CRL/CAMP member, so all of their microfilm can be borrowed by UF faculty and graduate students free of charge via Inter-Library Loan. Please see us for assistance to borrow microfilm from CAMP.

Der Bildbestand der Deutschen Kolonialgesellschaft in der Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main (Frankfurt Archives of German Colonial Photographs) is searchable, though no English language translations are currently available for keywords, etc.

Huib Blom's photographic album of people and places in Mali and Burkina Faso is available (including Niger, Dogon and Lobi sections), with clickable maps (these require 1024 x 768 screen resolution to work) documenting where each photograph was taken. Very nicely done.

The Mande Studies Association's (MANSA) Photo Gallery is a source for some additional photographic material.

The Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies at the Northwestern University Library offers a variety of online exhibits, including a collection of posters published in Africa, an HIV/AIDS related virtual exhibit entitled "Communities Uniting to Confront HIV/AIDS in Africa" and the Winterton Collection of East African Photographs: 1860-1960. The latter is in the process of being digistized for web access, with about 100 sample images currently available (October 2006).

The Internet Mission Photography Archive (IMPA) is a new web resource hosted by the University of Southern California. The content of the searchable database is historical photographs from mission repositories in North America, Britain, and continental Europe. Contributing archives to date include the Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America, Inc. (Maryknoll), Yale University Divinity School Day Missions Library, the Leipzig Mission, the Norwegian Missionary Society, and the School of Oriental and African Studies in London. Pictures from the archive of the Moravian Church in Herrnhut will be added soon. The IMPA database is intended to be an open scholarly resource. It is a work in progress, and we welcome your feedback. New photographs are being added on an ongoing basis, but there are already more than 2,000 fascinating photographs dating from the 19th century to World War II.

The West African Arabic Manuscript Database (formerly AMMS), a bilingual (English and Arabic) finding aid describes 20,000+ 19th century Arabic manuscripts (including some African languages in Arabic script) from Mauritania, Mali, Niger and Northern Nigeria. Important access information is detailed on the site under the heading "Documentation."

Indexes and guides to archives relating to Africa

Examples of the kinds of traditional printed reference sources that may assist researchers in preparing grant proposals and planning research in archives relating to Africa. These sources can help you familiarize yourself with the kinds of materials likely to be found in certain collections before you visit them, or perhaps even before consulting electronic databases cataloging their contents. For the most part, guides to particular national archives are omitted. Be sure also to browse the major library catalogs such as those of School of Oriental and African Studies, Library of Congress, and Northwestern University (either printed catalogs in the Reference area on the 3rd floor of Library West or directly online).

Afrikabezogene Nachlasse in den Bibliotheken und Archiven der Bundeslander Berlin, Brandenburg und Mecklenburg-Vorpommern / bearb.v. J.-G. Deutsch u. I. Halene. Berlin : Das arabische Buch, 1997.
Series note: Arbeitshefte / Zentrum Moderner Orient, Geisteswissenschaftliche Zentren Berlin e.V. ; 15
Series: Arbeitshefte (Zentrum Moderner Orient (Berlin, Germany)) ; 15
Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p.<93>-94).
Subjects, general:
Archives--Germany Catalogs.
Africa--Archival resources Catalogs.
LIBRARY WEST CD225 .A37 1997

Guide to the archives of international organizations. Paris : Unesco, 1984-
Series: Documentation, libraries and archives. Bibliographies and reference works ; v. 8
Notes: Includes bibliographies and index.
Contents: 1. The United Nations system.
Subjects, general:
International agencies--Archival resources.
International agencies--Archives--Handbooks, manuals, etc.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD941 .G831 1984

The eight volume International Council on Archives' Guide to the sources of the history of the nations series for Africa provides an overview of archival material relating to Africa in various collections worldwide (including Germany, Spain, France, Italy/Vatican and Scandinavia).

International Council on Archives. Quellen zur Geschichte Afrikas sudlich der Sahara in den Archiven der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Zug, Inter Documentation <c1970>
Series: Guide to the sources of the history of the nations. B: Africa, 1
Notes: This volume comprises "the contributions of the Federal Republic of Germany."
Preface in French: introduction in English, French, and German.
Bibliography: p. 7-10.
Subjects, general:
Africa, Sub-Saharan--History--Sources--Bibliography.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD941 .G84 vol. 1

International Council on Archives. Espana, guia de fuentes para la historia de Africa subsahariana. Zug, Switzerland, Inter Documentation <1971>
Series: Guide to the sources of the history of the nations. B: Africa, 2
Notes: Introduction in English, French, and Spanish.
Subjects, general:
Archives--Spain--Inventories, calendars, etc.
Africa, Sub-Saharan--History--Sources--Bibliography.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD941 .G84 v.2

International Council on Archives. Sources de l'histoire de l'Afrique au sud du Sahara dans les archives et bibliotheques francaises. Zug, Inter Documentation Co. <1971-76>
Series note: Guide des sources de l'histoire de l'Afrique, 3-4
Series: Guide to the sources of the history of the nations. B: Africa, 3-4.
Contents: 1. Archives.--2. Bibliotheques.
Subjects, general:
Archives--France--Inventories, calendars, etc.
Africa, Sub-Saharan--History--Sources--Bibliography.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD941 .G84

International Council on Archives. Guida delle fonti per la storia dell'Africa a Sud del Sahara esistenti in Italia. A cura di Carlo Giglio e Elio Lodolini. Zug, Inter Documentation <c1973>-
Series: Guide to the sources of the history of the nations. B:Africa, 5
Notes: General introduction also in English and French.
Includes bibliographical references.
Subjects, general:
Africa, Sub-Saharan--History--Sources--Bibliography.
Other author(s), etc.: Giglio, Carlo, 1911- ed.
Lodolini, Elio, ed.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD941 .G84 vols.5-6

Guida delle fonti per la storia dell'Africa a sud del Sahara negli Archivi della Santa Sede e negli Archivi ecclesiastici d'Italia / a cura di Lajos Pasztor ; ouvrage prepare avec l'aide et sous les auspices de l'Unesco. Zug, Switzerland : Inter Documentation Company AG, c1983.
Series: Guide to the sources of the history of the nations. B, Africa ; 7
Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; 3
Notes: English, French, and Italian.
At head of title: International Council on Archives.
Includes bibliographies and index.
Subjects, general:
Catholic Church--Africa,
Archivio vaticano--Catalogs.
Church archives--Italy--Directories.
Africa, Sub-Saharan--History--Sources--Bibliography--Catalogs.
Africa, Sub-Saharan--Archival resources--Italy--Catalogs.
Other author(s), etc.: Pasztor, Lajos.
International Council on Archives.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD941 .G84 vol. 7

International Council on Archives. Scandinavia; sources in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Zug, Inter Documentation <1971>
Series: Guide to the sources of the history of the nations. B: Africa, 8
Includes bibliographies.
Subjects, general:
Archives--Scandinavia--Inventories, calendars, etc.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD941 .G84 vol. 8

History and electronic artefacts / edited by Edward Higgs. Oxford <England> : Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1998.
Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index.
Subjects, general:
Electronic records.
Electronic records--Conservation and restoration.
Electronic records--Europe.
Electronic records--Europe--Conservation and restoration.
Other author(s), etc.: Higgs, Edward, 1952-
LIBRARY WEST CD974.4 .H57 1998

Ryder, A. F. C. (Alan Frederick Charles). Materials for West African history in Portuguese archives. <London> Athlone Press, 1965.
Subjects, general:
Africa. West--History--Sources.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD1000 .G8 no.2

Thomas, Daniel H., ed. New guide to the diplomatic archives of Western Europe / ed. by Daniel H. Thomas and Lynn M. Case. <Philadelphia> : University of Pennsylvania Press 1975.
Notes: Earlier edition issued as Guide to the diplomatic archives of Western Europe. <1959>. Published in honor of William E. Lingelbach.
Includes bibliographies.
Subjects, general:
Other author(s), etc.: Case, Lynn Marshall, 1903- joint ed.
Lingelbach, William Ezra, 1871-1962.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD1001 .T4 1975

Foster, Janet & Julia Sheppard. British archives : a guide to archive resources in the United Kingdom. 4th ed. New York: Palgrave, 2002.
Notes: Includes indexes.
Subjects, general:
Archives--Great Britain--Directories.
Other author(s), etc.: Sheppard, Julia.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD1040 .F67 2002

Pearson, J. D. (James Douglas). A guide to manuscripts and documents in the British Isles relating to Africa / compiled by J.D. Pearson. London, England ; New York : Mansell, 1993-
Notes: "A new edition of Matthews and Wainwright A guide to manuscripts and documents in the British Isles relating to Africa."
Includes index.
Contents: v. 1. London. -- v. 2. British Isles (Excluding London).
Subjects, general:
Archives--Great Britain--Catalogs.
Manuscripts--Great Britain--Catalogs.
Africa, Sub-Saharan--History--Sources--Bibliography--Catalogs.
Other author(s), etc.: Matthews, Noel. Guide to manuscripts and documents in the British Isles relating to Africa.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD1048.A3 P43 1993

France. Archives nationales. Inventaire des archives coloniales, sous-series C5A etC5B, corresondance a l'arrivee en provenance de madagascar et du Cap du Bonne-Esperance. Paris, S.E.V.P.E.N., 1970.
Series: Inventaires et documents.
Subjects, general:
Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)--History--Sources--Bibliography.
Other author(s), etc.: Gut, Christian.
Gut, Marie Josephe.
Pouliquen, Monique.
France. Archives coloniales.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD1198.M2 A53

Reindorf, J. (Joe). Scandinavians in Africa : guide to materials relating to Ghana in the Danish National Archives / compiled by J. Reindorf ; with additional material by P.E. Olsen, edited by J. Simensen. Oslo : Universitetsforlaget, 1980.
Series note: Fontes historiae Africanae. Subsidia bibliographica / Union academique internationale ; 1
Notes: "... sponsored by the University of Ghana and the Norwegian Agency for International Development."
Subjects, general:
Denmark. Rigsarkivet.
Scandinavians--Ghana--Archival resources.
Other author(s), etc.: Olsen, Poul Erik, 1952-
Simensen, Jarle.
University of Ghana.
Norsk utviklingshjelp.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD1778.G4 R431

Biblioteca Nacional (Portugal). Guia preliminar dos fundos de arquivo da Biblioteca Nacional / introducao e organizacao por Ligia de Azevedo Martins ... <et al.>. Lisboa : Instituto da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro, 1994.
Series: Fundos da Biblioteca Nacional. Arquivos ; 1
Notes: At head of title: Presidencia do Conselho de Ministros, Secretaria de Estado da Cultura, Instituto da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro.
Includes index.
Subjects, general:
Biblioteca Nacional (Portugal)--Archives--Catalogs.
Other author(s), etc.: Martins, Ligia de Azevedo, 1960-
Instituto da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro (Portugal)
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD1882.A2 B53 1994

Sources of the history of Africa, Asia and Oceania in Yugoslavia / Union of Societies of Archivists of Yugoslavia. Munchen ; London : K.G. Saur, 1991.
Series: Guides to the sources for the history of the nations. 3rd series, North Africa, Asia and Oceania ; v. 10
Notes: Includes indexes.
Subjects, general:
Africa--History--Archival resources--Yugoslavia--Catalogs.
Asia--History--Archival resources--Yugoslavia--Catalogs.
Oceania--History--Archival resources--Yugoslavia--Catalogs.
Other author(s), etc.: Savez drustava arhivskih radnika Jugoslavije.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD1984.5.A35 S581 1991

McIlwaine, John. Writings on African archives / John McIlwaine ; with an essay by Anne Thurston and contributions by Pino Akotia & Justus Wamukoya. London ;<New Providence, N.J.> : Hans Zell Publishers, 1996.
Notes: "Published for the Standing Conference on Library Materials on Africa (SCOLMA)."
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Subjects, general:
Other author(s), etc.: Thurston, Anne.
Akotia, Pino.
Wamukoya, Justus.
Standing Conference on Library Materials on Africa.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD2301 .M451 1996

National Archives of Rhodesia. Guide to the historical manuscripts in the National Archives of Rhodesia, by T. W. Baxter and E. E. Burke. Salisbury, 1970.
Subjects, general:
Other author(s), etc.: Baxter, T. W.
Burke, Eric Edward, 1916-
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD2434 .N37 1970

Gregory, Robert G. A guide to the Kenya National Archives : to the microfilms of the provincial and district annual reports, record books, and handing-over reports, miscellaneous correspondence, and intelligence reports / by Robert G. Gregory, Robert M. Maxon, and Leon P. Spencer. Syracuse, N.Y. : Program of Eastern African Studies, Syracuse University, 1968, c1969.
Series note: Syracuse University Eastern African bibliographical series ; no. 3, Kenya
Series: Syracuse University Eastern African bibliographical series ; no. 3.
Notes: Includes indexes.
Subjects, general:
Kenya National Archives Microform catalogs.
Kenya--History--Sources--Bibliography Microform catalogs.
Other author(s), etc.: Maxon, Robert M.
Spencer, Leon P.
Other title(s): Eastern African bibliographical series.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD2364 1968

Repertoire serie M : tribunaux judiciares 1819-1956 du fonds de l'AOF / Kandioura Aidara ... <et al.> ; revu et corrige par Atoumane Ndiaye Doumbia. Dakar : Direction des Archives du Senegal, 1996.
Alternate title(s): Tribunaux judiciares 1819-1956 du fond de l'AOF
Notes: At head of title: Primature Secretariat General du Gouvernment : direction des Archives du Senegal.
Subjects, general: 
Archives du Senegal--Catalogs.
Court records--Africa, French-speaking West--Catalogs.
Court records--Senegal--Catalogs.
Africa, French-speaking West--Archival resources.
Other author(s), etc.: Doumbia, Atoumane Ndiaye.
Aidara, Kandioura.
Senegal. Primature.
Archives du Senegal.
LIBRARY WEST CD2491.S4 R461 1996

South, Aloha. Guide to non-federal archives and manuscripts in the United States relating to Africa / researched and compiled by Aloha South. London ; New York : H. Zell Publishers, 1989.
Notes: "Published for the National Archives, Washington, DC."
Includes bibliographies and indexes.
Contents: v. 1. Alabama-New Mexico -- v. 2. New York-Wisconsin.
Subjects, general:
Archives--United States--Catalogs.
Other author(s), etc.: United States. National Archives and Records Administration.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) CD3002 .S68 1989

Zell, Hans M. The African studies companion: A guide to information sources. 4th edition. Lochcarron, Scotland: Hans Zell Publishing, 2006.
LIBRARY WEST: Reference DT19.8 .Z45 2006 and available electronically

Tirmizi, S. A. I. Indian sources for African history : guide to the sources of the history of Africa and of the Indian diaspora in the basin of the Indian Ocean in the National Archives of India / by S.A.I. Tirmizi. Delhi : International Writers' Emporium, c1988-
Series: Guides to the sources for the history of the nations. 2nd series, Africa south of the Sahara ; v. 10/1
Notes: "Unesco sponsored guides to the sources for the history of the nations."
Includes index.
Subjects, general:
Other author(s), etc.: National Archives of India.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) DT20 .T571 1988

Guia de fontes portuguesas para a historia de Africa / Instituto Portugues de Arquivos. Lisboa : Comissao Nacional para as Comemoracoes dos Descobrimentos Portugueses : Fundacao Oriente : Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, 1991-
Notes: In Portuguese; preface also in English.
Title in preface: Guia de fontes arquivisticas para a historia de Africa.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Subjects, general:
Africa, Portuguese-speaking--Colonization--Sources--Bibliography--Catalogs.
Africa, Portuguese-speaking--History--Sources--Bibliography--Catalogs.
Portugal--Archival resources.
Other author(s), etc.: Instituto Portugues de Arquivos.
Other title(s): Guia de fontes arquivisticas para a historia de Africa.
LIBRARY WEST DT36 .G841 1991

Porges, Laurence. Sources d'information sur l'Afrique noire francophone et Madagascar : institutions, repertoires, bibliographies / par Laurence Porges. Paris : Ministere de la Cooperation, La Documentation Francaise, c1988.
Series: Collection analyse des sources d'information
Notes: At head of title: ORSTOM, Institut francais de recherche scientifique pour le developement en cooperation.
Includes indexes.
Subjects, general:
Africa, Sub-Saharan--Bibliography.
Other author(s), etc.: O.R.S.T.O.M. (Agency : France)
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) DT351 .P671 1988

Thurston, Anne. Guide to archives and manuscripts relating to Kenya and East Africa in the United Kingdom / Anne Thurston. London ; New York : Hans Zell Publishers, 1991.
Description: 2 v. (xvii, 1196 p.) ; 25 cm.
Notes: Includes index.
Contents: v. 1. Official records -- v. 2. Non-official archives and manuscripts.
Subjects, general:
British--Africa, East--History--Sources--Bibliography--Catalogs.
Archives--Great Britain--Catalogs.
Africa, East--History--Sources--Bibliography--Catalogs.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) DT433.557 .T481 1991

Sources of the history of North Africa, Asia, and Oceania in Finland, Norway, and Sweden / <compiled by Berndt Federley ... et al. ; translated into English by Mogens Moller ... et al.>. Munchen ; New York : Saur, 1981.
Series: Guides to the sources for the history of the nations. 3rd series, North Africa, Asia, and Oceania ; v. 3, pt. 2
Sources of the history of North Africa, Asia, and Oceania in Scandinavia ; pt. 2
Notes: English, Finnish, Norwegian, and Swedish.
At head of title: The National Archives of Finland, the National Archives of Norway, the National Archives of Sweden.
Includes bibliographies and indexes.
Subjects, general: Archival resources--Scandinavia.
Archival resources--Finland.
Asia--History--Archival resources--Scandinavia.
Africa, North--History--Archival resources--Scandinavia.
Oceania--History--Archival resources--Scandinavia.
Asia--History--Archival resources--Finland.
Africa, North--History--Archival resources--Finland.
Oceania--History--Archival resources--Finland.
Other author(s), etc.: Federley, Berndt, 1906-1977.
Finland. Valtionarkisto.
Norway. Riksarkivet.
Sweden. Riksarkivet.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) Z3001 .S63 1980 pt. 2

Scheven, Yvette. Bibliographies for African studies, 1987-1993 / edited by Yvette Scheven ; compiled by Phyllis Bischof ... <et al.>. London ; New Jersey : Hans Zell Publishers, 1994.
Notes: Includes indexes.
Originally published: Bibliographies for African studies, 1970-1986. London : Hans Zell Publishers, 1988.
Subjects, general:
Bibliographical literature--Bibliography--Africa, Sub-Saharan.
Africa, Sub-Saharan--Bibliography.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) Z3501.A1 S345 1994

Bhatt, Purnima Mehta. Scholars' guide to Washington, D.C. for African studies / Purnima Mehta Bhatt ; consultants, Daniel G. Matthews, Michael R. Winston, Julian W. Witherell ; Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Washington : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1980.
Series: Scholars' guide to Washington, D.C.; n. 4
Notes: Includes indexes.
Bibliography: p. 330-332.
Subjects, general: Africa--Library resources--Washington (D.C.)
Africa--Archival resources--Washington (D.C.)
Other author(s), etc.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) Z3501 .B48

Roessingh, M. P. H. Guide to the sources of the history of Africa south of the Sahara in the Netherlands / compiled by M. P. H. Roessingh annd W. Visser ; <translated from Dutch into English by J. W. Veenendaal-Barth. New York : K. G. Saur, 1978.
Series: Guides to the sources for the history of the nations : 2nd series, Africa south of the Sahara ; v. 9
Notes: At head of title: Netherlands State Archives Service.
On spine: Sources of the history of Africa south of the Sahara, Netherlands.
Includes indexes.
Subjects, general: Africa, Sub-Saharan--History--Archival resources--Netherlands.
Africa, Sub-Saharan--History--Sources--Bibliography--Catalogs.
Other author(s), etc.: Visser, Wiekert, 1934-
Netherlands. Rijksarchiefdienst.
Other title(s): Sources of the history of Africa south of the Sahara, Netherlands.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) Z3508.H5 R63

Baldock, Robert W. A survey of southern African manuscripts in the United Kingdom / Robert W. Baldock. Basel : Basler Afrika Bibliographien, 1976.
Description: 42 p. ; 21 cm.
Series: Mitteilungen der Basler Afrika Bibliographien ; v. 16
Notes: Appendix (p. 29-42): Johanson, K. P. An african reference centre in Switzerland, the Basel Africa Bibliography.
Includes bibliographical references.
Subjects, general: 
Africa, Southern--History--Archival resources--Great Britain.
Other author(s), etc.: Johanson, K. Peter. African reference centre in Switzerland, the Basel Africa Bibliography. 1976.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) Z3518 .B34

Bibliographies on South African political history / edited by O. Geyser, P. W. Coetzer, J. H. Le Roux. Boston : G. K. Hall, c1979-
Series: Bibliographies and guides in African studies
Notes: An activity of the Institute for Contemporary History, University of the Orange Free State.
Includes index.
Contents: v. 1. Register of private document collections on the political history of South Africa since 1902. v.2. General sources on South African political history since 1902. v.3. Index to periodical articles on South African political and social history since 1902.
Subjects, general: 
Archives--South Africa--Inventories, calendars, etc.
South Africa--Politics and government--Archival resources--South Africa.
Other author(s), etc.: Geyser, O.
Coetzer, P. W.
Le Roux, J. H.
University of the Orange Free State. Institute for Contemporary History.
Other title(s): Register of private document collections on the political history of South Africa since 1902. General sources on South African political history since 1902. Index to periodical articles on South African political and social history since 1902.
LIBRARY WEST Reference (Non-Circulating) Z3608.A5 B5

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